Modern society depends on the availability of electrical energy, especially energy sources. The need for electricity just like other basic human needs. Utilization of electrical energy has been influencing and shaping the human civilization at this decade, because the quality of human life has a correlation to the use of electrical energy in everyday life. Energy crisis resulting from the reduced availability of primary energy sources of the world, marked by soaring world oil prices to 130 dollars per barrel has triggered economic and social crisis in many countries, including Indonesia.
Indonesian government policy to raise the price of oil fuels (BBM) by reason of saving the state budget revenue and expenditure (budget) to drive up the price of almost all commodities required people in Indonesia. This makes the poverty rate increased and the lives of people worse off. Various elements of society including students rejected an objection by the demonstration of this policy occurred in almost all parts of the country. Hard choices that must be taken by the government with all the consequences must be borne. This fact indicates that the energy crisis could trigger a crisis in the global and multidimensional in their respective countries.
Excessive uses of fuel not only trigger a global economic crisis and each country, but more concerning is triggering a global environmental crisis. Global environmental crisis is characterized by the phenomenon of air pollution, soil and water. Crisis, resulting from the exploitation of energy resources up to their utilization for the various needs of human life in various sectors such as electric power, transportation, industrial and domestic.
The impact of climate change cut across all sectors, especially agriculture sector, a variety of disasters that occur currently these days often associated with the phenomenon of global warming.
Sector of electric power contributed the largest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere by 40% and the remaining 27% of transportation sector, industrial sector 21%, 15% of the domestic sector and other sectors – the other 1%. This data is quite valid since most power plants in Indonesia that is 89.5% using fossil fuels with new electrification ratio reaches 56%, imagine if the electrification ratio continues to increase while the power dependence on fossil fuels still. As an illustration of each kWh of electric energy produced by the use of fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases by 974 grams of CO2, SO2 962 mg SO2 and 700 mg Nox.
State of Indonesia natural factors strongly supports the development of energy sector in Indonesia, especially in the electricity sector. Geographically Indonesia is rich in energy resources. Such resources include the renewable and non-renewable. The existence of potential energy is spread evenly across the archipelago. Mummified fossil energy potential 86.9 billion barrels of oil while reserve only by 9 billion barrels, or 10.36% while the ability to be used is still relatively low at only 5.56% every year.
It is worth noting that the potential will not last long or will be exhausted after such exploitation without petroleum exploration efforts will be exhausted 18 years later, the same gas for 61 years and coal 147 years. This scarcity has been felt at this time that Indonesia has not meet the quota as an oil exporting country is determined by the organization of oil exporting countries (OPEK). This fact shows that the dependence on fossil fuels should be reduced gradually saw the limited existence, as it can be discharged if exploited continuously.
Fuel crisis experienced by Indonesia today is a testament to the government’s inability to predict the consequences of fuel needs at this time of exporter formerly Negara Indonesia is currently the importer. Consequently the increase in world oil prices affect the resilience of the economy and the country’s power sector has considerable economic impact of concern because most of the power plant is using the fuel.
Fossil energy potential is limited and potentially threatening or triggering ecological crises, while the development of renewable energy is an opportunity for adequate potency and friendly to the environment.
The challenge is how to find a power plant that has high capacity, has an economic value while still ensuring environmental sustainability. Generating technologies are used for all power not much different, which gives the energy difference is used for power.
In general, power plants operate on the principle of electromagnetic the intersection of the magnetic field resulting from the movement of the magnetic poles (rotor) in the fixed magnetic pole (stator) will result voltage current. This process occurs in an electric generator that converts the electrical machinery or mechanical energy into electrical energy of motion. To generate electrical energy, generator moved by a variety of energy in general, three kinds the first energy fossil fuels: oil, coal, and natural gas, both renewable energy, such as hydro, solar / solar, wind, and geothermal energy, nuclear energy last
The fact that in 2004 primary energy consumption is dominated by fossil energy by 93% consist of: crude oil 53%, gas 19% and coal 21%, 4% water energy, and geothermal by 3%.
Indonesia electricity production in 2003 sourced from fossil fuels by 80% consists of coal: 52%, 5% fuel, 23% gas, hydro and geothermal 9% 9% with installed electric capacity of about 25 681 MWe consisting of 22 231 MWe or 86 , 6% are produced by PLN and 3450 MWe or 13.4% produced by private power companies. While the source of energy for electricity generation.
Based on data from PLN in 2012 estimated production of electricity in Indonesia reached 192.590 GWh, meaning 172.360 GWh electricity produced using fossil energy. This amount resulted in the release of 168 million tons of CO2, 159.6 thousand tons and 120.7 thousand tons of SO2 NOx.
This condition indicates that the power plant in Indonesia dependence on fossil fuels, is quite large and this has triggered the economic crisis in Indonesia as well as causing the ecological crisis. The ecological crisis is possible because any use of fuel will produce an emission that is significant.
Thus one solution to reduce the causes of global environmental crisis is in the power sector reform efforts through the utilization of electrical energy sources that are environmentally friendly and economically beneficial so easy to reach by the economic bottom.
Alternative which can be on the market that can be implemented in Indonesia in the current context is the development of geothermal energy use and use of nuclear energy. Other renewable energy for the short term can not be fully utilized by considerations of efficiency or economy.
Both types of energy have advantages compared to fossil energy from the environment and economical aspects.
Geothermal energy is heat emanating from the bowels of the earth that can be used to turn turbine generators. The use of geothermal energy in Indonesia has a long, but its development is relatively slow.
The potential of geothermal energy in Indonesia is relatively large because it is the world’s largest potential, which is 40% of geothermal reserves in the world are in Indonesia. This energy spread evenly relative throughout in Indonesia, because Indonesia country geographically located in the path of the volcano (ring of fire).
The total potential of geothermal energy in Indonesia reached 27 487 MW located in almost all regions in Indonesia that is the island of Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan and Papua. The interesting thing about geothermal energy potential in terms of geographical spread is 18 183 MW or 66.15% are outside the island of Java. However, its use would be concentrated in Java, whereas outside Java dependency on fossil fuels is very high.
Of environmental aspects PLTPB a very positive impact for the environmental balance, as it generates CO2 emissions are very low, it is 10.48 times lower than coal, 9.85 times lower than oil and 6.61 times lower of natural gas. Striking thing is the emission of SO2 is 315.4 times less than coal and 34.29 times less than petroleum. Thus the use of PLTPB is very friendly to the environment.
PLTPB development of the economic aspect has the advantage. Because, do not require fuel that can produce electrical energy with relatively low prices and continuity is assured because it is not dependent on the weather, so it has a high capacity factor which is 95% operational time. Relatively high initial investment costs but low maintenance long-term so as to greatly advantage. Despite this weakness of PLTPB is located far from load centers make the cost of transmission and distribution of electricity is high, but for the long term remains an economically promising.
Hemana, Joni. , 2008. “Global Warming and Its Impact on Living environment”, seminar paper on environmental chemistry VII Airlangga University.
Slamet, Agus. , 2008. “Global Warming for Professional Engineers”, CD Seminar Paper Engineers Association of Indonesia (PII) Subabaya.
Indonesia replaced with Minister of Energy (2008), Handbook of Indonesia Energy Economic Statistics, 2006, accessed on April 21st, 2012.
Rohi, Daniel, 2006. “Assessing the Use of Nuclear Energy Controversy in Support of National Electricity”, Proceedings of the National Seminar, State University of Surakarta.
Reed, M.J and Renner, L.Jl. Of 1995. “Environmental Compatibilility of Geothermal Energy”, CRP Press, (Online), (http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/articles/reed/reed-renner.pdf), accessed on April 21st, 2012.