Consumption of fuel oil (BBM) nationwide has increased every year. The situation is due to the increase of vehicles in Indonesia, mostly gasoline and diesel from fossil fuels. If in 2000 the number of vehicles around 5 million units for 2009 has increased by more than 3 time of about 18 million units and the development of such vehicles more than 60% are passenger vehicles that reach about 10 million units. With the increase in the number of the vehicle causes the consumption of fuel oil (BBM) increased. If in 2000 the need of fuel to transport about 20,000 kilo liters, in the year 2009 has reached 37 000 kilo liters. The greater consumption of fuel would require a greater oil production, but the fact that oil production in the country since 2000 has decreased since 2005, so that Indonesia becomes net oil importer.
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) estimated imports of fuel oil in 2012 will reach 537 000 barrels every day. While the total fuel demand in 2012 is predicted to reach 1.242 million barrels every day. Thus, Indonesia will experience a deficit (deficiency) of about 537 000 barrels of oil every day or 43% of the total needs of 1.242 million barrels every day (Republika Online, 09/21/11).
Head of Downstream Regulatory Body Oil and Gas (BPH oil and natural gas) Tubagus Haryono said, until September 31st, 2011 the realization of subsidized fuel consumption has exceeded 34.42 million kilo liters. That is, was 102.9% of quota from January to October (Republika Online, 10/10/11).
Currently the technology is likely to develop the energy supply of biofuel is the production of bioethanol. Bioethanol is ethanol derived from biological sources, such as sugar cane, palm sugar sorghum, cassava, arrowroot, sweet potatoes, corn, hay, corncobs and wood. Raw material for making ethanol can be made from materials that contain carbohydrates, glucose and cellulose. Basic material of bioethanol which potential to be developed in Indonesia mainly cassava. Developed the potential of cassava as a raw material because it can be produced in large quantities in various agro-ecosystems (Prihandana, Rama et al., 2008). Maintenance is also easy, effective, and productive so it does not cost a lot too. What are some of the content contained in cassava that can be used as an alternative energy (ethanol)?, What are the advantages of ethanol compared to gasoline?, How is the development prospects of cassava bioethanol as a gasoline substitute alternative materials for the foreseeable future?
Cassava has a pretty good potential as a feedstock for ethanol plants. Cassava yields about 10-50 tons/ha/year and it have ethanol content 2000-7000 liters/ha/year (Prihandana, Rama et al., 2008). Cassava also contains about 60% water, 25% -35% starch, and protein, minerals, fiber, calcium, phosphate, carbohydrate, glucose and cellulose that can be used as materials for ethanol. This is because ethanol is having a source the potential of carbohydrates.
Ethanol can be used in pure form or as a blend for gasoline or hydrogen fuel. Interaction of ethanol with hydrogen can be utilized as an energy source in fuel cells or internal combustion engines (internal combustion engine) conventional.
There are some internal characteristics of ethanol led to the use of ethanol in gasoline engines is better than. Ethanol has a research octane number 108.6 and motor octane 89.7. Common Bunkering Station (SPBU) has sold gasoline research octane number 88 and the motor octane is generally lower than the research octane. To the ratio of the mixture of ethanol and gasoline up to 60%:40% recorded an increase in efficiency up to 10%.
The research data shows ethanol can be used as a mixture of 20% premium to the content of the octane levels 10% higher than the pure premium and does not affect engine performance. Combustion process that occurs in a mixture of air and fuel ethanol to be better so that led to relatively low CO emissions compared with burning air and fuel is about 4%. In addition, it also has a high evaporation heat is 842 kJ / kg so that the machine can work optimally. (Prihandana, Rama et al., 2008).
From a technical perspective, developed viable cassava as raw material for bioethanol is reflected in the existence of opportunities to increase cassava productivity growth rate from 1.3 to 37.0% every year, the availability of suitable varieties are used as raw material for bio-ethanol industry, there is unused land and rained land, mostly planted with rice only once a year each with an area of 5.84 million ha and 1.2 million ha.
Financial feasibility is characterized by the ratio B/C 1.49 and 1.98 at the rate of 15 tons and 20 tons/ha at a price of fresh cassava at farm level Rp 250/kg. Economic feasibility/industry indicated by the spread of cassava production centers in 55 districts and the high interest of farmers to adopt production technology and to develop improved varieties of cassava. (Edition of Sinar Tani June 27th-July 3rd, 2007).
Currently the main source of human energy obtained from fossil fuels, especially on fuel consumption. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resource and a definite time runs out. The solution to optimize existing resources to find alternative energy sources to renewable materials or biofuel that can replace the fuel that now fewer in number.
Cassava is one of the natural resources that can be used as raw material for bioethanol to replace the premium.
Bioethanol made from raw cassava enough potential to be developed in Indonesian given the availability of land for cultivation is still supported by modern technology. Efforts to increase cassava production can be reached through intensification and extension programs in the form of energy by private gardens or bio-ethanol industry.
With the production of bioethanol Indonesia business will have a renewable alternative energy solution.
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